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Prostatitis (Prostadynia) - Tear Sheet Pad
 
Prostatitis (Prostadynia)
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Prostatitis (Prostadynia) - Tear Sheet Pad
Prostatitis
(Prostadynia)

Definition

Prostatitis is inflammation of the prostate gland. The prostate is a walnut-sized gland in men that surrounds the urethra. The prostate produces a fluid that is part of semen.

There are three types of prostatitis:

* Acute bacterial (least common of the four types, but the most common in men under 35)
* Chronic bacterial (not very common, but affects mostly men between 40 and 70)
* Chronic non-bacterial/prostadynia (most common type)
* Prostadynia (also known as chronic pelvic pain syndrome)

Causes

Acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis are caused by bacteria that infect the prostate gland. The bacteria usually come from the urinary tract or rectum. The causes of non-bacterial prostatitis and prostadynia are unknown, though some may be due to a bacterial infection that is undiagnosed.
Risk Factors

A risk factor is something that increases your chance of getting a disease or condition.

* Abnormalities in the anatomy of the urinary tract
* Bladder outlet obstruction (e.g., a tumor, a kidney stone or enlargement of the prostate gland itself)
* Diabetes
* Engaging in anal intercourse
* Medical procedures that involve inserting a catheter or other tubing into your urethra or rectum
* Recent bladder infection
* Suppressed immune system

Symptoms

Symptoms of prostatitis can come on slowly or suddenly. They can be mild, or quite severe. In non-bacterial prostatitis, symptoms often come and go.

Symptoms may include:

* Blood in the urine
* Difficulty urinating
* Fever or chills
* Impotence (due to inflammation around the gland)
* Lower abdominal pain or pressure
* Lower back pain
* Needing to urinate frequently and/or urgently (especially at night)
* Pain or burning while urinating
* Painful ejaculation
* Rectal or perineal discomfort

Diagnosis

The doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history, and perform a physical exam. Diagnosis of prostatitis is usually based on the symptoms and a digital rectal exam. In this test, the doctor places a lubricated, gloved finger into the rectum to feel the back wall of the prostate. In prostatitis, the prostate is usually tender and soft.

Tests may include:

* Analysis of urine and prostate fluid expressed after the digital rectal exam
* Bladder function tests

Treatment

Treatment depends on the type of prostatitis:
Infectious Prostatitis

Acute bacterial prostatitis is treated with oral antibiotics for 1-2 weeks. In severe cases, treatment with intravenous antibiotics may be necessary. Chronic bacterial prostatitis is also treated with oral antibiotics for 4-12 weeks. Other medications include:

* Anti-inflammatory medications
* Avoiding alcohol or caffeinated beverages
* Other analgesics or pain medications
* Stool softeners

Non-infectious Prostatitis

Often patients are initially given a course of antibiotics. This is just in case an infectious cause was missed. Other treatments include:

* Anti-inflammatory medications
* Pain killers
* Warm sitz baths

Prevention

There are no guidelines for preventing prostatitis.

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